The CALM intervention was developed and evaluated during an 18
month research study conducted between September 1999 and April
2001. The study was funded by the Scottish
Executive, Mental Health Development Fund. This fund enables
the development of services not currently provided by Health Boards
The content for the support intervention and training programme
was identified and developed from focus group interviews and questionnaires
completed by nurses, nurse managers and carers in the Perth locality.
Ten nurses then undertook the training course and delivered support
to one carer each.
The support intervention was developed from the work of Mike
Nolan, Professor of Gerontology, University of Sheffield who provided
advice on this topic. The training programme was developed from
the work of Dr Jacqueline Atkinson, Department of Public Health,
Glasgow University. Dr Atkinson was involved at all stages of
Carers had input into the development of the course at all stages.
Focus groups of people who are carers helped to devise the course
content and carers helped with the training by speaking to the
nurses about their experiences.
A curriculum development group comprising carer representatives,
nurses, nurse managers, academics and the teaching and research
team refined the training module as a result of the findings of
the study and expert opinion. This group also developed the module
for health service providers working with carers of any client
group who had long term care needs.
The pilot study was carried out by the University
of Dundee, School of Nursing & Midwifery, in collaboration
Royal Hospital, Perth, and the Department of Public Health,
University of Glasgow. A steering group comprising carers, subject
experts and academics oversaw the study.
The pilot study found that:
Nurses reported changes in their practice as a result of the
training; in particular they became more carer focused.